Payment scope

It can happen again and again that when collecting by direct debit a payment is not accepted. There may
be different reasons for this:

  • The bank does not accept collection because the account is not sufficiently covered.
  • The bank does not accept collection because it is incomplete or inaccurate.
  • The account holder does not accept the withdrawal and wi-speak, so that the bank also withdraws the collection.
  • The account does not exist (anymore).

In most cases, however, it is already a posting on your own account has taken place. Now a burden
subsequently emerges, which revises the already made booking.

Do you often have larger amounts of money against your customers than a claim, and do you often have
to remind them until the payment is credited to your account? Then try to arrange direct debit with
your customers (direct debit authorization). However, there is still the risk that the customer or the bank
can object to this collection within six weeks of direct debit. Even with large invoice amounts, the debit
authorization is still the better solution. Because here this contradiction is possible only within two
weeks after debiting.

Expand the payment scope with papers: bill of exchange bookings

Already in childhood so many of a teacher of “old school” was taught: “Write down, write, but never
write across” – which meant the change, the “cross”, that is, if you put it upright , was signed, the change
had a bad one Ruf, whose trail was also found in German literature. In the novellas of the late 19th and early 20th century, bank robbers, who had drawn bills of exchange, and at some point had to refuse redemption because they were broke, find themselves again and again. This mood is found in popular opinion to this day. Even in the commercial vocational school was warned behave before the change. He really did not deserve that at all.

When buying goods, two different interests meet. The supplier would like to have his money as early as
possible, since he has provided advance payment in different ways (he has manufactured, processed or
procured the goods at his own expense). The customer wants to pay as late as possible, since he still has
to take care of the sales of the goods and only gets the money from his customers later. Both interests
are certainly justified. One solution to this problem is the change.

The bill of exchange is a document in which a debtor (= the payer) undertakes in writing to pay a certain
amount of money to a specific person (= the issuer) on a precisely defined day and place.
The change originated in the 12th century in Italy. The merchants wanted to reduce the risk of losing
their money while traveling through robbery and accident. Therefore they deposited money with a money changer or a bank and got about it a document, the “bill of exchange”, with which they could exchange the sum of money noted in a foreign city.

The bill of exchange is not only a means of payment, but above all a loan. If the creditor does not wait
for the debtor to pay after submitting his bill of exchange, he may hand the bill over to his supplier for
payment or to a bank and pay the bill. In both cases, of course, a fee and a discount (discount) is due.
In addition, there is the widest possible legal protection in the change traffic. If the drawee (the debtor)
can not raise the bill of exchange in time, the bill of exchange can be demanded relatively quickly. Not
only the drawee is liable, but all those who have handed over the change.

Branded goods

Goods with a trademark (company name, logo) and are sold in a consistent presentation and quality
over a longer period.

market share

The share of the total volume of a market a company has with its products.
Maternity Protection
For women workers, the Maternity Protection Act grants special employment protection for the period
before and after childbirth. It must be available to the prospect from the employer at a suitable place in
the company.


Quantity of goods that the buyer is willing and able to purchase at different prices.
net sales

Sales less all deductions and sales deductions. This “adjusted” sales is also referred to as net sales.

Neutral expenses

The neutral expenses do not serve the actual purpose of the operation. These expenses include: non-
operating, lending and extraordinary expenses.

Neutral earnings

Do not arise from the actual purpose of the operation. These include u.a. Tax refund from previous year
(non-period), income from investments (non-operating), profit from the sale of an asset (extraordinary).
They are the counterpart to the neutral expenditures.


Posting on the credit side of a passive stock account and the recognition of a liability item in the balance
sheet are called passivation.

liability account

Stock account in Financial Accounting. A liability account is a debt account. It will be closed on the
closing balance.

price indicates the value of a good in money. Pricing is one of the most important tasks of an entrepreneur.

private removal

A private withdrawal occurs when the entrepreneur transfers assets from the company to the private

private account

In individual companies and partnerships so-called private accounts are kept for the sole proprietor or
the fully liable partners. On these all deposits and withdrawals are posted.


Written confirmation of the creditor’s performance (usually a monetary amount) to the debtor.


Discount on the purchase of goods or in the use of services. It is stated either as a fixed amount or as a


Deferred items include expenses on the assets side before the balance sheet date, insofar as they represent expenses for a certain period after this date. On the liabilities side, income must be reported before the balance sheet date, provided that it represents income for a certain period after this date.


The return on invested capital, expressed in percentages.

pension Insurance

The statutory pension insurance is in addition to the health insurance, care and unemployment insurance to social insurance. In principle, all those who are employed for pay or for their vocational training are subject to compulsory insurance. The voluntary insurance in the statutory pension insurance is possible under certain conditions.


Reserves were made with corporations for legal and business reasons to cover outstanding liabilities.

They are part of equity and not tax-deductible.


The formation of provisions accrue expenses and losses that economically affect the past year on an accruals basis. There is no final profit adjustment, but only a profit shift to the year, which is to be charged economically with this effort.