That bookkeeping is something for overpenible, for civil servants and bean counters, you get to hear
everywhere, when this topic is touched in conversations. Even in circles of corporate executives, there
are three prejudices:
- that accounting must be conducted only for the tax office,
- that bookkeeping and annual financial statements are not so important for the actual operation (at most for the bank),
- that, except for tax purposes, there are no statutory provisions for accounting.
For whom are books kept?
All these prejudices do not apply! Of course there are legal regulations and they go far beyond the tax
aspects. Accounting is an important tool of corporate governance (regardless of the size of the
company) and it is not for the tax office and the bank, but primarily for the entrepreneur himself. That it
is for the state and the
It is important for banks to keep books and submit them for inspection, but it shows that they are given
high priority; in the one case, to have a correct basis for taxation in the other case, to see if lending is
worthwhile for the company at all.
The need to keep records of business is as old as written chronicles. Cuneiform documents and Egyptian
papyri prove that people have kept records of sales, movement of goods and money, and certainly not
in order to satisfy literary demands. Even in the private sector, the need to gain an overview of
monetary and asset transactions is not to be overlooked. Even people as far-flung as artists, for example
artists, can serve as an example. Eduard Mörike, for example, kept records of income and expenditure
and Hermann Hesse also.
Today, the accountant is a specialized professional in the commercial environment who is responsible
and versatile. practices. The basis is usually a commercial apprenticeship and continuous training, which can lead to the auditing of accounts. In a nutshell, accounting is a system for managing income and expenditure in such a way that an overview of the current financial situation and the income situation can be provided. In addition, money movements in accounting can be tracked completely.
Who “invented” the bookkeeping?
As old as the search for business records is, our present form of “double-entry bookkeeping” was
developed in Renaissance Italy, and accounts can be traced back to the thirteenth century, and the main
accounts of 1340 were found in Genoa, for example. The year 1494, however, is significant in terms of
book keeping, in that this year the Franciscan monk Luca Pacioli published a compendium depicting all
mathematics, including an account of the bookkeeping a systematic overview of the system of double
entry bookkeeping, but at the same time a practical guide for merchants.
The image of the company
Which accounting systems are available?
When we talk about accounting today, it is always the double-entry bookkeeping, which does not mean
that accounting needs to be doubled.
that a booking always consists of a “double booking”: once on the debit side of an account and once
on the credit side of another account,
and that there is a double determination of profit: comparison of operating assets at the beginning and
end of the financial year (balance sheet) and the preparation of the income statement at the end of the
There is also a second system: The simple accounting or profit determination, which is conducted in the
form of a cash book or a revenue surplus invoice, has only one transaction per transaction. With the
profit and loss account, you account to the tax office for your income situation, if you are exempt from
double-entry bookkeeping. This form of book keeping differs from that not only by the simple posting
per transaction, but also by the temporal assignment of the business transactions:
- In double-entry bookkeeping, business transactions are posted according to their affiliation to a time period. If, for example, the rent for January of the following year is already paid in December, this payment for the current year will not be taken into account in the annual financial statements (it is then said that it will be “restricted”).
- In the profitability calculation, the payment time period counts. In this case, the early rental payment would reduce the surplus.